Dry and Lean Are the Ways to Go
Two things determine whether a food is suitable to store long-term: water and fat content. The basic rule is that the higher the water or fat content, the lower the suitability for long-term storage.
Dry foods are easy to spot, but oils and fats can be more difficult. For example, most people would assume that nuts and seeds would be perfect for long-term storage, as they are dehydrated and often roasted. However, they have a high oil content and would go rancid in less than a year, even in a dry, no-oxygen environment. Therefore, pay very close attention to the nutritional info of any food you want to store!
How Long Is Long-Term?